The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the northeast of Central Asia in the center of the Eurasian continent. Its territory covers an area of 187.5 thousand km2. Length from west to east – 900 km, from north to south – 450 km. The Kyrgyz Republic has common borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Uzbek Republic.
The Kyrgyz Republic is located within the Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai mountain range systems. The highest point is Pobeda Peak (7439 m), and the lowest – 480 m above sea level – is the transboundary crossing of the river. Naryn. About 93% of the territory is located at an altitude above 1000 m, 85% – more than 1500 m, and about 42% above 3000 m above sea level.
The variety of natural and climatic conditions and landscapes of mountainous Kyrgyzstan can be combined into four natural and climatic zones:
The valley-foothill belt (up to 900 – 1200 m) is characterized by hot summers, moderately cool and snowless winters with a large deficit of precipitation. The sums of accumulated positive temperatures in this belt are 36… 49 ºС.
The mid-mountain zone (from 900 – 1200 to 2000 – 2200 m) has a typically temperate climate with warm, with relatively sufficient moisture, in summer and moderately cold, snowy winters. The sums of accumulated positive temperatures in this belt are 27… 40 ºС.
The alpine belt (from 2000 – 2200 to 3000 – 3500 m) is characterized by cool summers and cold, in some places snowy in winter. The temperature in July is only 11 – 16 ° C. Winter is long (November – March), with January temperatures of 8 … 10 ° C frost, in the rest of the cold months 3 … 7 ° C below zero. In the upper part of the alpine belt, the frost-free period is reduced to 3-4 months or less, and higher it may be absent, i.e. even the warmest summer months do not do without frost. The sum of accumulated positive temperatures here is 6… 26 ºС.
The nival belt (from 3500 m and above) is characterized by a harsh, very cold climate. This is a belt of snowfields, rocks, glaciers, a belt of moisture accumulation. Even in the lower part of this belt, the average July temperatures do not exceed 4…7 ° C.